Many species are known in Europe, although recent molecular studies have reduced significantly their number. Although the reader will find numerous references under every species, they should always consult the treatment of Den Bakker & Noordeloos (2005), some of its results also partly available online (see Noordeloos, online) in the form of a key, descriptions and photographs. Useful keys (excluding two south European species) are provided also by Kibby (2006) and Knudsen & Vesterholt (2008). Everybody reading those pages have to bear in mind that identification of Leccinum currently relies on both macroscopic and microscopic characters.
Fruitbody boletoid without veil and ring. Stipe solid, covered with numerous squamules. Flesh whitish or yellowish, sometimes spotted blue or greenish in the stipe base, in many species changing dramatically to pinkish, reddish, violaceous grey to black.